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Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by obs : Reading Comprehension

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Re: Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by obs [#permalink]
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Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by observing other individuals exhibiting those behaviors ) is well documented among fish, few studies have investigated social learning within a developmental context in these taxa.

We have a fairly good knowledge of social learning among fish in general What we lack is knowledge of social learning when the fifth are among group of any rank (taxa).

Rather than investigating the development of a particular skill, Chapman, Ward, and Krause investigated the role of group density during development in later foraging success in laboratory-housed guppies.

The researchers focused not that much on leaning a particular skill by fish when they are in a group but rather the extent of a group of fish, the magnitude, when the fish learn how to eat, observing guppies in a controlled environment

When raised with a small number of conspecifics (members of the same species), guppies were quicker to locate food by following a trained adult guppy than were guppies raised in large groups.

If the infant fish followed the tutor, they found the food pretty quickly. Otherwise, in large group was not alike


This counterintuitive finding is explained by the fact that guppies reared in the high-density condition were less likely to shoal (swim in a group ) with others and, therefore, were less likely to learn the benefits of social learning.

We do know now that in large group the guppies instead to have benefits and consequently a social learning, they benefit the most in small group of the same species


Instead, fish reared in high-density situations may learn that conspecifics are to be viewed as competitors, rather than as potential sources of adaptive information.

This is the reason why guppies prefer small groups

This finding suggests that at least for guppies, the early social environment may have an effect on the capacity for social learning, if not on the socially learned behaviors themselves.

If the guppies grow up in large group they are affected in the way the have social learning and therefore how to find food
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Re: Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by obs [#permalink]
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1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. note a flaw in a scientific finding

not really: at the very most they find new elements not a flaw in preexisting studies

B. describe a particular scientific study
yes correct. In small groups the have a consistent social learning

C. present an interpretation of a finding
no worng

D. note a difference between two scientific findings

no two types of research and relative comparison is cast in the passage

E. contrast two conditions in which a particular phenomenon has been observed

the condition the guppies have in small group compared when they are in a larger one is not put as stark contrast. they just show a study and how it unfolds. Quite tricky but this answer does not get as a whole the main idea
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Re: Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by obs [#permalink]
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2. Regarding research on fish, it can be inferred from the passage that

A. research studies of the acquisition of important skills by fish have only recently begun to document the role of conspecifics in the learning process

not true. the passages does not mention to study fish in general as member of a group

B. research on social learning in guppies suggests that guppies differ in important ways from most other fish in the means by which they learn particular skills
not true this differentiation

C. research on social learning in fish has generally focused on the acquisition of skills other than foraging

no info about specifically

D. research has established that social learning occurs in some fish species without investigating the development context in which it occurs.

true. the context is taxa

E. research to investigate social learning has been done more extensively on fish than on other aquatic animals.

not true or at least nOT in the passage
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Re: Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by obs [#permalink]
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3. Which of the following can be inferred about the study by Chapman, Ward, and Krause?

A. It was initially designed to investigate something other than social learning.

not mentioned in the passage

B. It required researchers to observe individual guppies at multiple points in their life spans.

not true. it is mentioned how growing in small groups following a tutor will influence their skills in foraging as adult

C. It pointed to the possibility that population density may have little to do with guppies’ social learning.

the passage investigate exactly the contrary

D. It required the observation of guppies under conditions that closely mimicked the conditions of guppies in the wild.

true laboratory-housed guppies.

E. It indicated that guppies gain adaptive information from being reared with a relatively large number of conspecifics.

adding two elements in the passage that should be addressed separately. not true
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Re: Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by obs [#permalink]
Carcass wrote:
3. Which of the following can be inferred about the study by Chapman, Ward, and Krause?

A. It was initially designed to investigate something other than social learning.

not mentioned in the passage

B. It required researchers to observe individual guppies at multiple points in their life spans.

not true. it is mentioned how growing in small groups following a tutor will influence their skills in foraging as adult

C. It pointed to the possibility that population density may have little to do with guppies’ social learning.

the passage investigate exactly the contrary

D. It required the observation of guppies under conditions that closely mimicked the conditions of guppies in the wild.

true laboratory-housed guppies.

E. It indicated that guppies gain adaptive information from being reared with a relatively large number of conspecifics.

adding two elements in the passage that should be addressed separately. not true


I think that the suggested answer for this is wrong. I got this same question on ETS and ETS suggests that the answer is B not D. Explanation being that "This study needs to observe the foraging ability and foraging behavior performance of members in two different groups (low-density & high-density) at different stages, so it corresponds to the requirements mentioned in the options. The researcher observes individuals at different time points and the option is correct."
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Re: Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by obs [#permalink]
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