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If my colleagues and I are right, we may soon be saying good-bye to th : Reading Comprehension

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QUESTION #3


A Rather than dealing with one answer at a time, start by looking at the first statement of each answer. They are all the same, and they are accurate: The first paragraph introduces the recent theory of inflation. Next, look at the second statement of each answer. Choices (A) and (B) work best: The beginning of the second paragraph explains that the inflation theory was developed to address complications arising from the big bang theory. Choice (C) is wrong because the authors did not say that the big bang theory was discarded, (D) is wrong because no supporting evidence is provided, and (E) is wrong because the authors do not discuss criticism of the inflation theory. Finally, look at the last statement in (A) and (B). Choice (A) is correct because the remainder of the passage describes the big bang theory and shortcomings of that theory. Choice (B) is too strong; the authors seek to supplement, not discard, the big bang theory.
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For question 1, the following sentence of the passage seems to undermine the correct answer choice as B.

“ At the end of this period, the universe continued its evolution ACCORDING to the big bang model. ”

Furthermore, the answer seems to be too narrow in scope and too extreme. The “complications “ from the theory came about after it was coupled with another theory- the modern theory of elementary particles.

“ For example, the standard big bang theory, coupled with the modern theory of elementary particles, predicts the existence of many super-heavy particles carrying magnetic charge—that is, objects that have only one magnetic pole.”

B. Because the big bang theory cannot account for the actual state of the universe, it is possible that the universe actually evolved through inflation.

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I still find it hard to understand the choice of B to question 1 because so many pointers that signify the author accepts the big bang theory but feels it's not wholesome and tries to resolve those complications with the inflationary theory.

"During that time, the theory holds, the cosmos became exponentially large within an infinitesimal fraction of a second. At the end of this period, the universe continued its evolution according to the big bang model."

"Several workers, first in Russia and later in the U.S., proposed the inflationary hypothesis that is the basis of its foundation. We did so to solve some of the complications left by the old big bang theory."

"As the universe expanded, it gradually cooled. Remnants of the primordial cosmic fire still surround us in the form of the microwave background radiation"

Reasons why it appears to me that the inflationary theory seems to complement the big bang theory.

Please I need more help on the two choices B&E
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do you mean the main idea of the passage? question 1 need help ?
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Re: If my colleagues and I are right, we may soon be saying good-bye to th [#permalink]
Yes, Question 1 as par the main idea of the passage
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If my colleagues and I are right, we may soon be saying good-bye to the idea that our universe was a single fireball created in the big bang. We are exploring a new theory based on a 15-year-old notion that the universe went through a stage of inflation. During that time, the theory holds, the cosmos became exponentially large within an infinitesimal fraction of a second. At the end of this period, the universe continued its evolution according to the big bang model. As workers refined this inflationary scenario, they uncovered some surprising consequences. One of them constitutes a fundamental change in how the cosmos is seen. Recent versions of inflationary theory assert that instead of being an expanding ball of fire the universe is a huge, growing fractal. It consists of many inflating balls that produce more balls, which in turn produce more balls, ad infinitum.

Cosmologists did not arbitrarily invent this rather peculiar vision of the universe. Several workers, first in Russia and later in the U.S., proposed the inflationary hypothesis that is the basis of its foundation. We did so to solve some of the complications left by the old big bang theory. In its standard form, the big bang theory pm maintains that the universe was born about 15 billion years ago from a cosmological singularity—a state in which the temperature and density are infinitely high. Of course, one cannot really speak in physical terms about these quantities as being infinite. One usually assumes pm that the current laws of physics did not apply then. They took hold only after the density of the universe dropped below the so-called Planck density, which equals about 1094 grams per cubic centimeter.

As the universe expanded, it gradually cooled. Remnants of the primordial cosmic fire still surround us in the form of the microwave background radiation. This radiation indicates that the temperature of the universe has dropped to 2.7 kelvins. The 1965 discovery of this background radiation proved to be the crucial evidence in establishing the big bang theory as the preeminent theory of cosmology. The big bang theory also explained the abundances of hydrogen, helium, and other elements in the universe.


As investigators developed the theory, they uncovered complications. For example, the standard big bang theory, coupled with the modern theory of elementary particles, predicts the existence of many super-heavy particles carrying magnetic charge—that is, objects that have only one magnetic pole. These magnetic monopoles would have a typical mass 1016 times that of the proton, or about 0.00001 milligram. According to the standard big bang theory, monopoles should have emerged very early in the evolution of the universe and should now be as (551 abundant as protons. In that case, the mean density of matter in the universe would be about 15 orders of magnitude greater than its present value, which is about 10-29 grams per cubic centimeter.

From the portion above clearly B is the answer


A. Scientists have proven the big bang theory to be inaccurate and replaced it with the concept that the universe inflated over time.

No the passage di not say that the BB theory is inaccurate. simple it is not enough to explain certain things

B. Because the big bang theory cannot account for the actual state of the universe, it is possible that the universe actually evolved through inflation.

Exactly what the passage suggests us and what I said already in option A. See above my words


C. The big bang theory cannot be discounted completely, but the inflationary theory is also plagued by inconsistencies.

This is true but is not the main point. The main point is that we need a new theory

D. The big bang theory is incorrect because of the absence of magnetic monopoles in the universe.

no it is not incorrect

E. Cosmologists have combined the big bang theory with the inflationary theory to produce a new picture of the universe's evolution.

Maybe. But if that is true is not the point of the passage a a whole
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Let me know is that is tsill unclear to you.

here more theory how to find the main idea from my Rc guide https://gre.myprepclub.com/forum/shorte ... ml#p112341
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