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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
skythelimit wrote:
For Question 23, I understand that the remaining options can be eliminated.
(C) describing several levels of processes, increasing in energy, and corresponding sets of particles, generally decreasing in size
What is the set of particles and decreasing in size?
Is the set of particles the elementary particles?
Paragraph one--- atoms, molecules(conditional elementary), nuclei, electrons (4)
Paragraph two-- protons, neutrons and electrons (3)
Paragraph three-- quarks and gluons (2)

Are these the sets of particles with decreasing size?



Yes exactly.

Para 1: The first is the atomic realm
Para 2: The next rung is the nuclear realm.
Para 3: The third rung of the quantum ladder is the subnuclear realm.
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
My main strategy is always to follow the flow of Para 1, 2 & 3 to understand the passage better
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
cnk1 wrote:
skythelimit wrote:
For Question 23, I understand that the remaining options can be eliminated.
(C) describing several levels of processes, increasing in energy, and corresponding sets of particles, generally decreasing in size
What is the set of particles and decreasing in size?
Is the set of particles the elementary particles?
Paragraph one--- atoms, molecules(conditional elementary), nuclei, electrons (4)
Paragraph two-- protons, neutrons and electrons (3)
Paragraph three-- quarks and gluons (2)

Are these the sets of particles with decreasing size?



Yes exactly.

Para 1: The first is the atomic realm
Para 2: The next rung is the nuclear realm.
Para 3: The third rung of the quantum ladder is the subnuclear realm.



My concern here is about the size portion in the option
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
1
Q23. The B option is eliminated because of being wide or does it have unnecessary information.
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Carcass wrote:
We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three levels on the quantum ladder. The first is the atomic realm, which includes the world of atoms, their interactions, and the structures that are formed by them, such as molecules, liquids and solids, and gases and plasmas. This realm includes all the phenomena of atomic physics, chemistry, and, in a certain sense, biology. The energy exchanges taking place in this realm are of a relatively low order. If these exchanges are below one electron volt, such as in the collisions between molecules of the air in a room, then atoms and molecules can be regarded as elementary particles. That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges. If one goes to higher energy exchanges, say \(10^4\) electron volts, then atoms and molecules will decompose into nuclei and electrons; at this level, the latter particles must be considered as elementary. We find examples of structures and processes of this first rung of the quantum ladder on Earth, on planets, and on the surfaces of stars.

The next rung is the nuclear realm. Here the energy exchanges are much higher, on the order of millions of electron volts. As long as we are dealing with phenomena in the atomic realm, such amounts 'of energy are unavailable, and most nuclei are inert: they do not change. However, if one applies energies of millions of electron volts, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, and the processes of radioactivity occur; our elementary particles then are protons, neutrons, and electrons. In addition, nuclear processes produce neutrinos, particles that have no detectable mass or charge. In the universe, energies at this level are available in the centers of stars and in star explosions. Indeed, the energy radiated by the stars is produced by nuclear reactions. The natural radioactivity we find on Earth is the long-lived remnant of the time when now-earthly matter was expelled into space by a major stellar explosion.

The third rung of the quantum ladder is the subnuclear realm. Here we are dealing with energy exchanges of many billions of electron volts. We encounter excited nucleons, new types of particles such as mesons, heavy electrons, quarks, and gluons, and also antimatter in large quantities. The gluons are the quanta, or smallest units, of the force (the strong force) that keeps the quarks together. As long as we are dealing with the atomic or nuclear realm, these new types of particles do not occur and the nucleons remain inert. But at subnuclear energy levels, the nucleons and mesons appear to be composed of quarks, so that the quarks and gluons figure as elementary particles.
21. The primary topic of the passage is which of the following?

(A) The interaction of the realms on the quantum ladder.
(B) Atomic structures found on Earth, on other planets, and on the surfaces of stars
(C) Levels of energy that are released in nuclear reactions on Earth and in stars
(D) Particles and processes found in the atomic, nuclear, and subnuclear realms
(E) New types of particles occurring in the atomic realm

Show: :: OA
D


22. According to the passage, radioactivity that occurs naturally on Earth is the result of

(A) the production of particles that have no detectable mass or electric charge
(B) high energy exchanges on the nuclear level that occurred in an ancient explosion in a star
(C) processes that occur in the center of the Sun, which emits radiation to the Earth
(D) phenomena in the atomic realm that cause atoms and molecules to decompose into nuclei and electrons
(E) high-voltage discharges of electricity that took place in the atmosphere of the Earth shortly after the Earth was fonned

Show: :: OA
B


23. The author organizes the passage by

(A) making distinctions between two groups of particles, those that are elementary and those that are composite
(B) explaining three methods of transferring energy to atoms and to the smaller particles that constitute atoms
(C) describing several levels of processes, increasing in energy, and corresponding sets of particles, generally decreasing in size
(D) putting forth an argument concerning energy levels and then conceding that several qualifications of that argument are necessary
(E) making several successive refinements of a definition of elementarity on the basis of several groups of experimental results

Show: :: OA
C


24. According to the passage, which of the following can be found in the atomic realm?

(A) More than one level of energy exchange
(B) Exactly one elementary particle
(C) Exactly three kinds of atomic structures
(D) Three levels on the quantum ladder
(E) No particles smaller than atoms

Show: :: OA
A


25. According to the author, gluons are not

(A) considered to be detectable
(B) produced in nuclear reactions
(C) encountered in subnuclear energy exchanges
(D) related to the strong force
(E) found to be conditionally elementary

Show: :: OA
B


26. At a higher energy level than the subnuclear level described, if such a higher level exists, it can be expected on the basis of the information in the passage that there would probably be

(A) excited nucleons
(B) elementary mesons
(C) a kind of particle without detectable mass or charge
(D) exchanges of energy on the order of millions of electron volts
(E) another set of elementary particles

Show: :: OA
E


27. The passage speaks of particles as having conditional elementarity if they

(A) remain unchanged at a given level of energy exchange
(B) cannot be decomposed into smaller constituents
(C) are mathematically simpler than some other set of particles
(D) release energy at a low level in collisions
(E) belong to the nuclear level on the quantum ladder

Show: :: OA
A




Can someone please help me with the 25th question?
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
1
sath wrote:
Can someone please help me with the 25th question?


Happy to help.

First let's look at the question stem:

25. According to the author, gluons are not

Ok, let's search for that word in the passage. It is mentioned in the third paragraph:

"The third rung of the quantum ladder is the subnuclear realm. Here we are dealing with energy exchanges of many billions of electron volts. We encounter excited nucleons, new types of particles such as mesons, heavy electrons, quarks, and gluons, and also antimatter in large quantities. The gluons are the quanta, or smallest units, of the force (the strong force) that keeps the quarks together. As long as we are dealing with the atomic or nuclear realm, these new types of particles do not occur and the nucleons remain inert. But at subnuclear energy levels, the nucleons and mesons appear to be composed of quarks, so that the quarks and gluons figure as elementary particles.
"

Now let's go to the answer choices. "Glucons are not:"

(A) considered to be detectable
(B) produced in nuclear reactions
(C) encountered in subnuclear energy exchanges
(D) related to the strong force
They are units of the strong force that keeps quarks together
(E) found to be conditionally elementary

But that's all we can solve using the information in the third paragraph. It is a trap to try to solve the question using only this information. Let's go through the reading passage again, looking for clues on how to better understand what is being asked.

"We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three levels on the quantum ladder. The first is the atomic realm, which includes the world of atoms, their interactions, and the structures that are formed by them, such as molecules, liquids and solids, and gases and plasmas. This realm includes all the phenomena of atomic physics, chemistry, and, in a certain sense, biology. The energy exchanges taking place in this realm are of a relatively low order. If these exchanges are below one electron volt, such as in the collisions between molecules of the air in a room, then atoms and molecules can be regarded as elementary particles. That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges. If one goes to higher energy exchanges, say \(10^4\) electron volts, then atoms and molecules will decompose into nuclei and electrons; at this level, the latter particles must be considered as elementary. We find examples of structures and processes of this first rung of the quantum ladder on Earth, on planets, and on the surfaces of stars.

The next rung is the nuclear realm. Here the energy exchanges are much higher, on the order of millions of electron volts. As long as we are dealing with phenomena in the atomic realm, such amounts 'of energy are unavailable, and most nuclei are inert: they do not change. However, if one applies energies of millions of electron volts, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, and the processes of radioactivity occur; our elementary particles then are protons, neutrons, and electrons. In addition, nuclear processes produce neutrinos, particles that have no detectable mass or charge. In the universe, energies at this level are available in the centers of stars and in star explosions. Indeed, the energy radiated by the stars is produced by nuclear reactions. The natural radioactivity we find on Earth is the long-lived remnant of the time when now-earthly matter was expelled into space by a major stellar explosion.

The third rung of the quantum ladder is the subnuclear realm. Here we are dealing with energy exchanges of many billions of electron volts. We encounter excited nucleons, new types of particles such as mesons, heavy electrons, quarks, and gluons, and also antimatter in large quantities. The gluons are the quanta, or smallest units, of the force (the strong force) that keeps the quarks together. As long as we are dealing with the atomic or nuclear realm, these new types of particles do not occur and the nucleons remain inert. But at subnuclear energy levels, the nucleons and mesons appear to be composed of quarks, so that the quarks and gluons figure as elementary particles."



Ok, from the first sentence in bold, we see that there are three realms of matter that the passage talks about. By focusing on this element of structure in the passage, we can search for the other realms of matter and their properties.

We have the atomic realm with very low energy exchanges, the nuclear realm with higher energy exchanges, and finally the subnuclear realm with the highest of energy exchanges. Now, we can finally solve the problem.


25. According to the author, gluons are not

(A) considered to be detectable
They are detectable at the subnuclear realm.
(B) produced in nuclear reactions
The energy exchanges in nuclear realm are too small to be able to detect gluons. This is the correct answer.
(C) encountered in subnuclear energy exchanges
Glucons are only encountered in subnuclear energy exchanges
(D) related to the strong force
They are units of the strong force that keeps quarks together
(E) found to be conditionally elementary
This is correct. They are only elementary in the condition of the subnuclear realm
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Why is E wrong for 24? In the atomic realm there are only atoms and molecules. So, there are no particles smaller than atoms there.
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
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Expert Reply
P1

In this paragraph the author claims that there are 3 realms of matter and she describes the first one, that is the atomic realm. In the rest of the paragraph we are given important definitions such as the one of elementary particles. Plus we are given which kind of elements are part of the realm and the energy involved in the relations among the elements.

Purpose: To describe the first realm of matter: the atomic realm



P2

In paragraph 2 the author describes the nuclear realm. Few things to note: the energy involved is higher and there are different particles/elements described. The structure here is very similar to the one used in the previous paragraph.

Purpose: To describe the nuclear realm



P3

In the last paragraph we are given the last realm: the subnuclear realm. Again we have different particles involved and higher energies.

Purpose: To describe the subnuclear realm



Main point

To describe the 3 realms of matter: atomic, nuclear and subatomic


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1. The primary topic of the passage is which of the following?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

[b]To describe the 3 realms of matter: atomic, nuclear and subatomic

[/b]

(A) The interaction of the realms on the quantum ladder.
(B) Atomic structures found on Earth, on other planets, and on the surfaces of stars
(C) Levels of energy that are released in nuclear reactions on Earth and in stars Partial scope
(D) Particles and processes found in the atomic, nuclear, and subnuclear realms
(E) New types of particles occurring in the atomic realm



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. According to the passage, radioactivity that occurs naturally on Earth is the result of

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P2: The natural radioactivity we find on Earth is the long-lived remnant of the time when now-earthly matter was expelled into space by a major stellar explosion.


(A) the production of particles that have no detectable mass or electric charge
(B) high energy exchanges on the nuclear level that occurred in an ancient explosion in a star
(C) processes that occur in the center of the Sun, which emits radiation to the Earth
(D) phenomena in the atomic realm that cause atoms and molecules to decompose into nuclei and electrons
(E) high-voltage discharges of electricity that took place in the atmosphere of the Earth shortly after the Earth was fonned



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



3. The author organizes the passage by

Pre-thinking

Structure question

The author presents in order the three realms, describing the level of energies and the kind of particles found in each one of them


(A) making distinctions between two groups of particles, those that are elementary and those that are composite
The author does that but this one is not the whole organization of the passage

(B) explaining three methods of transferring energy to atoms and to the smaller particles that constitute atoms
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) describing several levels of processes, increasing in energy, and corresponding sets of particles, generally decreasing in size
in line with pre-thinking

(D) putting forth an argument concerning energy levels and then conceding that several qualifications of that argument are necessary
Never done by the author

(E) making several successive refinements of a definition of elementarity on the basis of several groups of experimental results
no refinement


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



4. According to the passage, which of the following can be found in the atomic realm?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

We need to refer to P1

We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three levels on the quantum ladder. The first is the atomic realm, which includes the world of atoms, their interactions, and the structures that are formed by them, such as molecules, liquids and solids, and gases and plasmas. This realm includes all the phenomena of atomic physics, chemistry, and, in a certain sense, biology. The energy exchanges taking place in this realm are of a relatively low order. If these exchanges are below one electron volt, such as in the collisions between molecules of the air in a room, then atoms and molecules can be regarded as elementary particles. That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges. If one goes to higher energy exchanges, say 104
10
4
electron volts, then atoms and molecules will decompose into nuclei and electrons; at this level, the latter particles must be considered as elementary. We find examples of structures and processes of this first rung of the quantum ladder on Earth, on planets, and on the surfaces of stars.



(A) More than one level of energy exchange
(B) Exactly one elementary particle atoms and molecules are mentioned
(C) Exactly three kinds of atomic structures atoms, molecules, nuclei and electrons are mentioned.
(D) Three levels on the quantum ladder Out of context
(E) No particles smaller than atoms nuclei and electrons are



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




5. According to the author, gluons are not

Pre-thinking

Detail question

In the last paragraph the author talks about gluons: The gluons are the quanta, or smallest units, of the force (the strong force) that keeps the quarks together. As long as we are dealing with the atomic or nuclear realm, these new types of particles do not occur and the nucleons remain inert. But at subnuclear energy levels, the nucleons and mesons appear to be composed of quarks, so that the quarks and gluons figure as elementary particles.


(A) considered to be detectable
(B) produced in nuclear reactions
(C) encountered in subnuclear energy exchanges
(D) related to the strong force
(E) found to be conditionally elementary



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



6. At a higher energy level than the subnuclear level described, if such a higher level exists, it can be expected on the basis of the information in the passage that there would probably be

Pre-thinking

Inference question

[b]At a higher energy level we always seem to find new elementary particles

[/b]

(A) excited nucleons cannot be inferred
(B) elementary mesons Fell for this one but, even if reasonable, we cannot be 100% sure
(C) a kind of particle without detectable mass or charge cannot be inferred
(D) exchanges of energy on the order of millions of electron volts cannot be inferred
(E) another set of elementary particles This one is 100% sure on the other hand



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


7. The passage speaks of particles as having conditional elementarity if they

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P1: That is, they have "conditional elementarity" because they keep their identity and do not change in any collisions or in other processes at these low energy exchanges.


(A) remain unchanged at a given level of energy exchange
(B) cannot be decomposed into smaller constituents they can if the energy involved is significantly higher
(C) are mathematically simpler than some other set of particles
(D) release energy at a low level in collisions
(E) belong to the nuclear level on the quantum ladder




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


It's a great day to be alive!
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
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Hi Carcass,
Timer for this question isn't visible for me.
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Expert Reply
Fixed

Thank you :thumbsup:
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Carcass, can you please help with the following?

1. For Q24, why B is not correct.
It is stated that atomic realm includes the world of atoms.

2. For Q26, why D is not correct. It is stated in the passage that in the nuclear realm, the energy exchanges are much higher, on the order of millions of electron volts.
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Expert Reply
24. According to the passage, which of the following can be found in the atomic realm?

(A) More than one level of energy exchange
(B) Exactly one elementary particle
(C) Exactly three kinds of atomic structures
(D) Three levels on the quantum ladder
(E) No particles smaller than atoms

We have three different levels in which the energy exchange is different. For example in the The next rung is the nuclear realm. Here the energy exchanges are much higher

B is not true because

This realm includes all the phenomena of atomic physics, chemistry, and, in a certain sense, biology.

So we do not have ONE single particle. B is wrong
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Expert Reply
I do beleive you did not read carefully question #26

26. At a higher energy level than the subnuclear level described, if such a higher level exists, it can be expected on the basis of the information in the passage that there would probably be

However, if one applies energies of millions of electron volts, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, and the processes of radioactivity occur; our elementary particles then are protons, neutrons, and electrons.

(A) excited nucleons
(B) elementary mesons
(C) a kind of particle without detectable mass or charge
(D) exchanges of energy on the order of millions of electron volts
(E) another set of elementary particles


What you pointed out is just a premise

I hope this helps
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Carcass, can you please explain how we can eliminate D for q26?

It is referring to nuclear realm. According to nuclear realm, the energy exchanges are much higher, on the order of millions of electron volts.
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Expert Reply
I have just explained above. Moreover, throughout the entire discussion the passage and all the questions are explained far and wide

Regards
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Re: We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Carcass, can you please help to understand why D is not correct?
I saw your explanation, but I am still not clear why I should eliminate D .

Q26 is refering to nuclear realm. According to nuclear realm, the energy exchanges are much higher, on the order of millions of electron volts.
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We can distinguish three different realms of matter, three l [#permalink]
Expert Reply
When you do not understand a question and why is wrong, you should resent your brain and start over again.

First, read carefully what the question is asking you

At a higher energy level than the subnuclear level described, if such a higher level exists, it can be expected on the basis of the information in the passage that there would probably be

it can be expected means - translated into words - the result. What result we do have if we follow a certain process?

However, if one applies energies of millions of electron volts, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, and the processes of radioactivity occur; our elementary particles then are protons, neutrons, and electrons.

IF we apply X= if one applies energies of millions of electron volts

The process we do obtain is = nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, and the processes of radioactivity occur

AND THE RESULT IS = our elementary particles then are protons, neutrons, and electrons.

The question asks you for a result NOT our X (first step)

So , the answer D is WRONG for this specific reason.

Moreover, in the inference questions - if you read my guide - the answer 99.99% of the time WILL NEVER be the answer with the same words of the passage.

The inference correct answer will always be a paraphrasing of the words of the passage.

I hope now will be finally clear
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