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"Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to descr [#permalink]
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Let's start by summarizing the paragraphs:


"Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to describe a crack in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water emerges. Because these vents are common in places that are volcanically active, they are plentiful on Earth. While the most famous hydrothermal vent is probably the geyser at Yellowstone National Park in the United States, there are several different types of vents, existing both on land and underwater. Black Smokers, for instance, are a common type of submarine vent. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration first discovered these in the vicinity of the Galapagos Islands in 1977. Underwater vents such as these form when water that has been heated by magma beneath the earth's crust exits through cracks in the ocean floor. Scientists are interested in these vents primarily for their ability to host biologically dense communities in areas that are otherwise hostile to life. Studies show that Chemosynthetic archaea, a life-form similar to bacteria, allows these areas to support such diverse organisms as clams and shrimp. Black Smokers are also visually striking. Minerals in the water that emerge from the earth's crust crystallize around each vent to create their distinctive black chimney-like formations.

We are introduced to hydrothermal vents and we are told about a kind of hydrothermal vent called a "black smoker."

While on a vessel exploring the Atlantis Massif in the mid-Atlantic Ridge, scientists recently discovered a completely new kind of hydrothermal system, which they dubbed "Lost City." Here, a "forest" of white limestone pillars rises 180 feet above the seafloor. There are several important differences that distinguish the hydrothermal vents in Lost City from the more familiar Black Smokers. The heat and fluid flow at Lost City is driven by the intermingling of seawater and mantle rocks on the seafloor, rather than by hot magma. As these fluids mix with magnesium-rich seawater, they deposit calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide, thereby creating the stunning white structures of Lost City. The fluids here are also much cooler (less than 100 degrees Celsius) and are composed of substances and gases that are different from those of Black Smokers. For instance, the fluids here have high pH content and contain significant amounts of hydrogen and methane gas.

There is this new kind of hydrothermal vent that differs from the "black smokers" mentioned in the paragraph above.

The discovery of Lost City is still a fairly recent one. and scientists currently have more questions than answers. However, they hope that the insights they gain from this study will provide information that will lead to a better understanding of some of the earliest hydrothermal systems on earth and the life they supported.

There is still a lot to learn about hydrothermal vents.

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Now let's answer the questions:


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. refute a well-established theory ----->No theory is mentioned.
B. describe a newly discovered natural phenomenon and compare it to another -----> Yes, the passage presents the discover of Lost City and compares it to Black Smokers.
C. explain how the study of a certain natural phenomenon has changed over time ----> How hydrothermal vents changed is not mentioned.
D. evaluate opposing theories ---->No theories are mentioned
E. reconsider a natural phenomenon in light of new discoveries ----> The passage introduces and compares, it does not reconsider or reevaluate.

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2. Select the sentence that explains why Black Smokers have piqued the curiosity of biologists.

Ok, let's search the first paragraph where Black Smokers are introduced.

Black Smokers, for instance, are a common type of submarine vent. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration first discovered these in the vicinity of the Galapagos Islands in 1977. Underwater vents such as these form when water that has been heated by magma beneath the earth's crust exits through cracks in the ocean floor. Scientists are interested in these vents primarily for their ability to host biologically dense communities in areas that are otherwise hostile to life. Studies show that Chemosynthetic archaea, a life-form similar to bacteria, allows these areas to support such diverse organisms as clams and shrimp. Black Smokers are also visually striking. Minerals in the water that emerge from the earth's crust crystallize around each vent to create their distinctive black chimney-like formations.

We can infer that the scientists they mention are biologists because they are studying biological communities.

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3. Consider each of the following answer choices separately and select all that apply.

The passage suggests that the hydrothermal vents that constitute Lost City are different from Black Smokers in which of the following ways?

A. Magma propels the heat and water of Black Smokers, whereas the vents at LostCity are driven by the merging of seawater and mantle rocks.
Yes, this is mentioned in the second paragraph.

B. Black Smoker vents release water that is much cooler than the water released at LostCity.
Black Smokers are hotter, not cooler than Lost City.

C. Chemosynthetic archaea fosters many different life forms around Black Smokers but is not present at Lost City.
It is only said that Chemosynthetic archaea fosters life around Black Smokers. As Chemosynthetic archaea is not mentioned in relation to Lost City vents, can really only speculate if it lives near this type of geothermic vent.

Location in the passage:

"Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to describe a crack in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water emerges. Because these vents are common in places that are volcanically active, they are plentiful on Earth. While the most famous hydrothermal vent is probably the geyser at Yellowstone National Park in the United States, there are several different types of vents, existing both on land and underwater. Black Smokers, for instance, are a common type of submarine vent. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration first discovered these in the vicinity of the Galapagos Islands in 1977. Underwater vents such as these form when water that has been heated by magma beneath the earth's crust exits through cracks in the ocean floor. Scientists are interested in these vents primarily for their ability to host biologically dense communities in areas that are otherwise hostile to life. Studies show that Chemosynthetic archaea, a life-form similar to bacteria, allows these areas to support such diverse organisms as clams and shrimp.(B) Black Smokers are also visually striking. Minerals in the water that emerge from the earth's crust crystallize around each vent to create their distinctive black chimney-like formations.

While on a vessel exploring the Atlantis Massif in the mid-Atlantic Ridge, scientists recently discovered a completely new kind of hydrothermal system, which they dubbed "Lost City." Here, a "forest" of white limestone pillars rises 180 feet above the seafloor. There are several important differences that distinguish the hydrothermal vents in Lost City from the more familiar Black Smokers. The heat and fluid flow at Lost City is driven by the intermingling of seawater and mantle rocks on the seafloor, rather than by hot magma. (A) As these fluids mix with magnesium-rich seawater, they deposit calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide, thereby creating the stunning white structures of Lost City. The fluids here are also much cooler (less than 100 degrees Celsius) and are composed of substances and gases that are different from those of Black Smokers. (C) For instance, the fluids here have high pH content and contain significant amounts of hydrogen and methane gas.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Consider each of the following answer choices separately and select all that apply.

According to the passage, which of the following statements are true about Black Smokers?

A. As water emerges from the vents it deposits calcium carbonate.
"There are several important differences that distinguish the hydrothermal vents in Lost City from the more familiar Black Smokers. The heat and fluid flow at Lost City is driven by the intermingling of seawater and mantle rocks on the seafloor, rather than by hot magma. As these fluids mix with magnesium-rich seawater, they deposit calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide, thereby creating the stunning white structures of Lost City."

B. Black chimney-like structures form around each vent.
"Black Smokers are also visually striking. Minerals in the water that emerge from the earth's crust crystallize around each vent to create their distinctive black chimney-like formations."

C. Black Smokers host biologically dense communities.
"Scientists are interested in these vents primarily for their ability to host biologically dense communities in areas that are otherwise hostile to life."
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Re: "Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to descr [#permalink]
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what a great reply
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Re: "Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to descr [#permalink]
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QUESTION 1

Choice (A) isn’t supported in the text.Eliminate choice (C) because, while the passage suggests that the body of knowledge relating to hydrothermal vents is expanding due to a recent discovery, the author doesn’t really look at how scientists study hydrothermal vents or mention how these studies might have changed.Choice (D) isn’t supported in the passage. In choice (E), while the author discusses the discovery of a new natural phenomenon, the author doesn’t reconsider or reevaluate previous studies on similar natural phenomenon.Choice (B) is the correct answer and is an accurate summary of the author’s purpose over the course of the passage.
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Re: "Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to descr [#permalink]
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QUESTION 2

To hone in on the correct sentence, use lead words to And the general part of the passage which likely holds the answer to the question. In this case, the wordsBlack Smokers leads you to the Arst paragraph. The question asks you why the biologists’ curiosity is piqued, so the sentence you are looking for is explanatory and refers to the value of the Black Smokers. The sentence beginning with Scientists are interested… is an answer to a why question, and you can make the link between biologists in the question and biologically in the sentence.
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Re: "Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to descr [#permalink]
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QUESTION 3


The passage states that the heat and fluid flow at the LostCity is driven by the intermingling of seawater and mantle rocks on the sea floor, rather than by hot magma.This statement means that the vents at LostCity are driven by the merging of seawater and mantle rocks.The rather than indicates a comparison between LostCity and some other hydrothermal vents.The only other vents mentioned in this paragraph are the Black Smokers, so they must be driven by hot magma.Choice (B) is directly contradicted by the passage, which states that the fluids here are much cooler, referring to LostCity.Chemosynthetic archaea are mentioned only in paragraph one, and thus choice (C) is out of scope for a question about paragraph three.
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Re: "Hydrothermal vent" is the term that scientists use to descr [#permalink]
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QUESTION 4


Choice (A) is a true statement from paragraph two, but it is a statement about the Lost City, while the question asks about the Black Smokers.Black chimney-like formations are mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph one, which discusses the Black Smokers, so you know that choice (B) is a true statement about the Black Smokers. Paragraph one also states that scientists are interested in these vents primarily for their ability to host biologically dense communities in areas that are otherwise hostile to life. Since the rest of this paragraph is talking about the Black Smokers, this statement must mean that Black Smokers do host biologically dense communities, supporting choice (C).
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